Latin America has tried to consolidate its democracy under the principles of the liberal democracies of Europe and the United States run by freedom, equality and general will since its independence from the Spanish metropolis. But undoubtedly politics work different now and in huge proportions.
In recent years reforms have intensified Constitutional in Latin America that advocate for the maintenance of the power of their leaders in detriment of democracy that has been immersed in authoritarian practices, has spread the violation of the human rights of opposition dissidents by restricting and limiting popular protests and demonstrations that have lately increased to claim real democracy before the exclusionary formality.
Latin America has adopted its own democratic regime based on the warlordism that comes out of the majority feeling to establish its own ideology, particularly, in the pursuit of the general interest and the common good.
This phenomenon in Latin America began in the 19th century with the local caudillos and provinces that are the basis of the national caudillo's power within an organization. Pyramidal relationship with their subordinates, through a pattern-to-client relationship. The patronage protects and rewards the client in accordance with their work and coherent to their total adhesion.
In Colombia as in several Latin American countries, the phenomenon of caudillismo
Is related to the presidential regime, which together form the concept of power
Presidentialism that still lasts and has been reflected in the constitutional reforms
Which seek to keep the president in power for more than a presidential term.
This tendency is established in the fact that the Latin American countries homogeneous democratic regime is the presidential one, that has characteristic of leaving the power of the state in the head of a single person, which, together with the warlordism as a political expression within the Latin American democratic dynamics has disfigured the initial conception of US presidential power based on the controls to limit presidential power (unrestricted Independence and autonomy of the powers) of the one who aspires to be perpetuated in the power coming to popularity and majorities through an authoritarian attitude.
Warlordism is a democratic model typical of Latin America since it expresses the political reality of ours which lacks of political stability, and that consequently dominates the Latin American society that considers the structures are legitimate and worthy of being accepted or supported, since the exercise of a strong government ends factionalism, centralizes power and can impose peace in the territory more effectively and efficiently.
For this reason we find that the constitutional reforms that have occurred in the last decade in Latin America received the leaders with overwhelming acceptance of the population, through constitutional reforms.
Nicaragua became the second country after Venezuela to endorse the indefinite presidential re-election, after the Congress repealed, with a constitutional amendment, the ban on presidential re-election successive and alternating in more than one opportunity, which had been in force since 1996. The reform, driven by the Sandinista left in power, remains firm as it was ratified by Congress in 2014.
In Venezuela, indefinite re-election was approved in 2009 with a referendum approving a constitutional amendment, promoted by the now deceased president Hugo Chavez (1999-2013). The presidential term is six years. Before the Chavez's arrival to power, Venezuela allowed reelection, but 10 years later to the culmination of the presidential mandate.
In Argentina, it consecrated itself with the constitutional reform of 1994, under the presidency of Carlos Menem, the first to be re-elected in 1995; the mandates are four years with the possibility of a single re-election.
And so on, the above shows that warlordism, coupled with an incentive popularity margin supporting re-election has made power limits and control disappear each day more in Latin America, adding to that the controversy of what democracy really is and how it has been applied in Latin America.