Deal ending 52 years of fighting that has killed a quarter of a million people comes after four years of negotiations
The Colombian president, Juan Manuel Santos, and the Marxist rebel leader Timochenko will sign a deal on Monday ending a half-century war that has killed a quarter of a million people, stymied the economy and made Colombia a byword for violence.
After four years of negotiations in Havana, Santos, 65, and Timochenko, a nom de guerre for the 57-year-old revolutionary, will shake hands for the first time on Colombian soil in front of world leaders.
Their deal to end Latin America’s longest-running conflict will turn the Farc guerrilla group into a political party fighting at the ballot box instead of the battlefield it has occupied since 1964.
About 2,500 foreign and local dignitaries will attend the ceremony in the colonial city of Cartagena, where huge billboards call on Colombians to accept the peace plan.
“I can’t believe this day has finally come. Peace is coming to Colombia,” said Juan Gamarra, 43, who sells jewellery in the walled city.
Guests include the UN chief, Ban Ki-moon, the Cuban president, Raúl Castro, the US secretary of state, John Kerry, and victims of the conflict.
Though there is widespread relief at an end to the bloodshed and kidnappings of past decades, the deal has caused divisions in Latin America’s fourth-biggest economy. Some, including influential former president Álvaro Uribe, are angered the accord allows rebels to enter congress without serving any jail time.
The agreement must be ratified by a plebiscite on 2 October, but polls indicate it will pass easily. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Farc) – which began as a peasant revolt, became big players in the cocaine trade and had as many as 20,000 fighters at their strongest – will hand over weapons to the United Nations within 180 days.
“It’s such an important day – now we can fight politically, without blood, without war,” said Duvier, a 25-year-old rebel attending a Farc congress last week in the southern Yari Plains.
Colombians are nervous about how the remaining 7,000 rebels will integrate into society, but most are optimistic peace will bring more positives than problems. Colombia’s economy has performed well compared with its neighbours in recent years, and peace should reduce security costs and open new areas for mining and oil companies. But crime gangs could try to fill the void and landmines hinder development.
With peace behind him, Santos, the scion of a wealthy Bogotá family, will hope to use the political capital to push his economic agenda, especially tax reforms, to compensate for a drop in income caused by a fall in oil prices.